Arduua Training Methodology

The Arduua training methodology that we use in our Online Coaching is based on the experience of our trainers, in their university education, in sports sciences and especially in their experiences and passion for Skyrunning.

We work with all levels of runners in any distance from 10k to 150k, but with the main focus in Skyrunning and Trail. All training plans are 100% individual, and are based on the runners physical status, dedication and ambition.

Main aspects in Skyrunning

These are the main aspects that we take into consideration in order to improve the health and performance of the runner:

  1. Basic physical abilities (Resistance, strength, speed, balance, coordination, …)
  2. Specific skills for mountain running (ascents, descents, plains, transitions, technical zones, easy zones, altitude, …)
  3. Technique and running efficiency (being able to run more efficiently and with less energy cost)
  4. Support in other areas that directly affect performance, such as those related to motivation, nutrition, materials, race management, …
  5. At last, we must bear in mind that for a training methodology to be effective and to advance in each and every one of these abilities and skills of the athlete, the fundamental point and that will mark the training process, is undoubtedly to have a thorough knowledge of the athlete.

At Arduua we have addressed this great challenge with great passion and as the fundamental pillar on which to support our training methodology and grow our athlete’s performance.

Training Process

We fully believe that to improve something, first you have to measure it and know where it starts. But we do not only want to determine the starting point of the athlete at all levels. As soon as we get started, we will  monitor the evolution of the athlete, and that will be our foundation for the next period of training plan.

We have developed a protocol of physical and physiological questionnaires and some specific Arduua tests for Skyrunning that allow us to:

  1. Know the athlete’s first hand and through a questionnaire, his medical and sports history, his own perception of his strengths and weaknesses and the main objectives for which we will address the training plan.
  2. Check the levels of joint and muscular mobility of the athlete so that we can work on muscle imbalances and strength deficits before increasing the volume and load of training. (“First move well, then move often”, Gray Cook)
  3. Check the athlete’s strength levels.
  4. Perform physiological stress tests to establish the functional anaerobic threshold of the runner from which to establish the athlete’s training zones. We work with a 5-zone model, in which zones 1 and 2 correspond mainly to aerobic work, zone 3 is a mixed aerobic and anaerobic “tempo” zone, zone 4 is the subumbral (anaerobic) zone, which is It would correspond to the maximum intensity that we can maintain in 40 minutes of running and zone 5 is a totally anaerobic zone in which we work, with different intervals, on fundamental physiological parameters such as the athlete’s maximum oxygen consumption.

From this 360º vision of the athlete, we can establish an effective training plan that allows us to improve all their capabilities and work specifically on the skills and abilities of their race goals.

In addition, within this work plan we have the help of new technologies offered by sports watches and the training platform we work with, Trainingpeaks, from which the coach can program and control the volume and intensity of each training, the evolution of the state of form and the associated fatigue of the athlete, so that we can approach with greater safety and precision to arrive in a state of the peak of physical form for the main races marked on the calendar.

With all these elements, the closed plans, formerly usual, no longer make sense, since we can currently measure and know the athlete’s form and fatigue status and adapt the plan week by week to work according to the adaptations of the athlete to the different contents of the training plan.

Therefore, we work with a training model that we call 2.0 and is based on open planning according to the data and adaptations that the athlete reflects with a weekly coach-client communication that allows us to give the flexibility to the plan that each athlete needs.

Team SkyRunner in Serbia doing some tests in mobility, strength and balance.
Team Arduua in Serbia doing some tests in mobility, strength and balance.

Skyrunning Fundamentals

Within our training methodology for mountain runners, some concrete and fundamental aspects that we work on are:

Within the work of strength:

  1. Base strength of the runner as fundamental content to ensure optimal levels of performance and the necessary capacity to withstand training loads. Fundamental work on a strong armour and chassis of the corridor.
  2. Specific race strength, specific work of the muscle chains involved in the entire biomechanics of the race such as flexion and extension of the hip, knee and ankle, the ability to handle a good trunk position in which the shoulders direct and lead the movement with an adequate stroke that unloads work to the legs.
  3. Eccentric force, specific force work to physically prepare the muscle and joints for downhill running. The descents and that eccentric way of requesting strength to the muscle is where greater muscle damage occurs and which drags and conditions performance and health in any mountain race.
  4. Specific work of plyometrics and running technique. We work the shortening cycle stretching muscles and tendons to achieve greater efficiency and transmission of forces at each step.

Within the work of physiological milestones and cardiovascular capacity:

  1. The great challenge of a long distance athlete is to be able to run in a controlled and low pulse area, in which the source of energy used by the muscles comes mainly from the oxidation of fats, which we can consider as a reserve unlimited in the human body for any race. Work in these areas is essential and can be complemented with nutritional strategies to further increase the ability to run at this limited intensity. This is one of the main adaptations we look for in endurance athletes.
  2. A methodology that we usually use in Arduua is the polarized methodology, being one of the ones with the greatest scientific base and studies and with which most elite athletes train in these disciplines. This methodology has shown many benefits both at the aerobic threshold level in low intensity areas and to improve the maximum oxygen consumption and anaerobic capacity of the corridor in its high intensity areas.This methodology is based on training approximately 80% of the volume at low and controlled intensity, where we approach the work of aerobic parameters and running technique and on the other hand, bbeing able to take out training, around 15-20% of the training volume, at high and very high intensities working directly on the physiological top capacity of the athlete that is the anaerobic threshold and the maximum oxygen consumption.
  3. This last methodology, we usually combine it with the reverse methodology. The inverse methodology is based on working the skills and physical abilities less directly related to the objective competitions of our runner in the first place, looking for a healthy and versatile athlete, and as we move forward in the training plan we are giving it more specific training in greater measure of skills, physical abilities and specific intensity for your target competitions.

Within the work of mobility and flexibility.

  1. We specifically address “shortening” or rather, a possible excessive muscular tension of the athlete in some of his muscle chains that can take him out of the healthiest mobility ranges for running, as well as maintaining a global plan of stretching healthy and specific for running.

Now, with the knowledge and information provided by new technologies, talking about a unique methodology to address the needs of an athlete is not enough. We must have a large toolbox, in the form of work routines and different physical and physiological stimulations, and as coach be brave and able to work with flexibility, modification of the plan and continuous adaptations to be able to take an athlete to a gradual and continuous progression.

That being said, if we have to summarize our methodology with just a few words, these would be, SPECIFICITY (for your goals), INDIVIDUALITY (for the athlete), DATA analysis (for the coach), Frequent COMMUNICATION (coach-athlete) and all this accompanied by CONSTANCE in training.

There are no secrets or magic parameters, constancy and hard work is the key and what gives value to the effort of each athlete!

Let us help you with your training

If you need any help with your training or have any questions, please check out our online coaching program, or send an e-mail to

Team SkyRunner, from the left: Snezana Djuric - Skyrunner Frontrunner, Fernando Armisén - SkyRunner Headcoach, Katinka Nyberg - Founder/entrepreneur.
Team Arduua, from the left: Snezana Djuric – Arduua Frontrunner, Fernando Armisén – Arduua Headcoach, Katinka Nyberg – Arduua Founder.

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